Flat foot is a common problem effecting 10-15 % of the population. Indeed, defining flat foot as a problem may not be correct because most the individuals having flat foot don’t have any complaint other than different shape of the foot.
Flat foot is briefly can be categorized as flexible and rigid. The problem forming flat foot is the rigid flat foot which is rarer in comparison to flexible flat foot. Among the causes of rigid flat foot; tarsal coalition, vertical talus and oblique talus are the leading pathologies. There is no underlying pathology in flexible flat foot and it is usually attributed as genetic.
In flexible flat foot, the sole of the foot depresses on weight bearing however it is formed when the first toe is passively dorsiflexed. However the shape of the foot doesn’t change in rigid flat foot. The shape of the foot, in flexible flat foot, may change till to age 9-10 years. However if the shape of the foot persists after that age, it means that it will be permanently flat. There is no need to worry because most of those individuals will never have any complaint other than the shape of the foot. Although the parents have an expectation for correction of the flat foot with in sole usage, it is inefficacious. The in sole is mainly advised in individuals having foot pain. In seldom cases of flexible flat foot surgical correction may be required if the pain or callosities persist due to conservative methods.